V Model In Software Engineering: Ultimate Guideline for 2023

V Model In Software Engineering: Ultimate Guideline for 2023

Software engineering is significantly growing day by day thanks to the support of practical software development models. Each software has its own outstanding features. V model in software engineering – a software development lifecycle model (SDLC), which executes sequentially with parallel testing for each development stage í still one of the most popular one.

What is a V model in software development?

The V model is a well-known project management technique in the software and web development industries. It is also known as Verification and Validation model. The development team may establish clear expectations and spot possible issues throughout the process using this model’s sequential phases along with validation testing without waiting for a finished product.

A testing phase is linked to each relevant development step in the V model software development, which is an extension of the waterfall model. This implies that there is a testing phase that is directly related to every single element of the development cycle. This is a very structured approach, and the start of the subsequent phase only occurs after the conclusion of the preceding phase. Finding out more about the V model in software engineering may make it easier for you to decide if it might be useful for your projects.

what is a v model in software development

4 Phases of V model in software engineering

The primary activities and features that the project manager’s team will focus on throughout the project to satisfy all of the client’s needs are included in the V model. The waterfall model, which arranges these steps in a sequential life cycle, is comparable to the V model. The V uses a V shaped development model to indicate phases, whereas the waterfall technique lists each work in a linear form. Now, let’s go into detail about 4 phases in the V model:

v model phases

1. Verification

The project manager has listed information for each of the verification steps on the left side of the V-shaped graph. These steps show the customer’s needs and the team’s strategy for meeting them. Static analysis techniques (review) are used during the verification step without running any code. To determine whether specific requirements are met, the product development phase is evaluated. 

2. Validation

The team runs the code during the validation phases to run functional and nonfunctional tests. This enables them to assess the software after creation to make sure after the development phase is complete, the software is evaluated to see if it satisfies the expectations and requirements of the customer. 

3. Design Phase

Analysis of business requirements

The first stage in V model of software development life cycle is the examination of business requirements. The project manager interacts with the client during this phase to learn about their requirements and expectations. This makes it possible for the project manager to ascertain a project’s precise requirements. The project manager uses this data to develop an acceptance test design plan that details every need from the client for the project and gives the team a clear set of instructions to follow. To assess the user experience later on during the user acceptance testing validation stage, they additionally develop user acceptance tests (UATs).

System design

The team determines the helpful application for the project they have produced throughout the system design phase. This entails determining the many tasks the project should carry out once it is finished, as well as how those tasks relate to one another and external factors. The business also creates system tests during this phase, which the team may use while testing in the later stages of development to make sure the entire system functions properly.

Architectural design

The team plans out the construction projects’ infrastructure at the architectural design stage of V model in software engineering. Developers define the project’s elements at this phase, as well as how they relate to and interact with one another. This provides a framework for comprehending how the project operates after completion. In this stage, developers also write the integration tests, which allow the team to validate that the project’s various systems can effectively communicate and cooperate with one another.

Module design

Each system module is given a thorough internal design during the module design process. The module design step, often known as low-level design, entails disassembling the system into smaller, simpler pieces. For programmers to start coding each module, the module design document lists all database tables, interface specifics, dependency problems, error message listings, and inputs and outputs.


Programmers decide which language to employ during implementation based on the system and architectural design specifications. They then start to code each module. Additionally, they test the code and enhance it as necessary to boost performance. When they finish a module, they can add it to the repository, a single location where all the source code files for a particular program are kept.

What is prototype model in software engineering?

4. Testing Phases

Unit testing

The team tests the code, identifies any problems, and creates fixes using the UTPs created during the module design process of V model software development. Since modules are the smallest component of a program, running UTPs can assist teams in ensuring that each component is operating properly. They may also be able to quickly resolve prospective problems by identifying their core causes.

Integration testing

The team can start the integration testing methods as soon as components are cleared for implementation. The team reviews the integration test plans it developed during the architectural design stage during the integration testing stage. These tests are used to determine whether various program components can get along and communicate with one another as necessary. The project manager creates a report to present the test results to the client and other important stakeholders when the team has completed the integration test plans.

System testing

The team analyzes the system tests they created during the system design phase during the system testing stage. These tests emphasize ensuring that the finished project satisfies all client’s needs in V-model requirements management. The team tests the complete system at this stage rather than just individual modules and components. This gives them a comprehensive grasp of the program’s entire functionality, interdependence, and communication efficiency.

Acceptance testing

The team employs the user acceptance tests (UATs) developed during the business requirements analysis phase to evaluate if the application satisfies user requirements during the acceptance testing stage. To gather accurate data, teams often conduct UATs in genuine user environments. Before they finish the project, this enables them to pinpoint areas that need improvement. The program is prepared for real-time use if it successfully passes all of the UATs.

V-model principles

  • Large to Small: In the V model in software engineering, testing is carried out from a hierarchical perspective. For instance, the project’s High-Level Design and Detailed Design phases are created using requirements determined by the project team. The requirements they are specifying get more precise and thorough when each of these steps is finished.
  • Data/Process Integrity: According to this idea, data and processes must be integrated into one another for any project’s design to be effective. Every need must have a list of the process elements.
  • Scalability: According to this principle, the V model of software development concept is flexible enough to support any IT project, regardless of size, complexity, or duration.
  • Cross-referencing: It is the process of directly connecting requirements to the associated testing activities.
  • Tangible Documentation: According to this notion, each endeavor must provide a document. Both the support staff and the project development team must use and adhere to this documentation. Once the application is made available in a production environment, documentation is utilized to maintain it.

When should we use V model of software development?

V model in software engineering is a prominent software development model which is used by many project managers to provide their teams structure when working on a new project. The following are some advantages of V model to software development:

  • Phases are finished one at a time under this model, which requires extreme discipline
  • For small projects with explicit project needs, the V-Model is employed
  • This model emphasizes verification and validation operations early in the life cycle, increasing the likelihood of developing a product with no errors and high quality
  • It enables project managers to precisely follow development
  • Focuses on a single phase at a time to provide precise instructions
  • Uses a straightforward and understandable framework and specifies clear deliverables to make it easier to assign tasks and monitor progress
  • Having a procedure for reviewing each stage to verify the accuracy 
  • Encourages high-quality development and design
  • Includes in-depth records of each step

With these benefits, when V model software development should be used to achieve the best results for your software development project?

The V model is often used by project managers for small to medium-sized projects with precise needs. If you decide to adopt the V model, it is crucial to ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the customer’s requirements because this model concentrates on planning and testing features rather than building prototypes. If you’re satisfied that you’ve developed definite and well-defined requirements for a project, think about employing the V model in software engineering. Make sure you have the tools and knowledge necessary to finish each verification and validation stage.

v model in software engineering


In conclusion, the V model supports simultaneous verification and validation at any stage. It is excellent for projects with fixed and pre-defined requirements. However, it is unsuitable for complicated, large-scale projects with ambiguous needs. We are confident that each step is carried out correctly because there is verification at every stage, so when a bug is discovered, we don’t need to go back and review all the prior processes. Therefore, V model in software engineering is a good option for your project if it is not overly complex and the customer’s requirements are fully clear.

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